# Experiments in Ray-Tracing, Part 2

**This is a very old article, included for historical interest only!**

Before I get into the meat of my ray-tracing experiment, I need to present a tiny bit of maths so I don’t need to explain in the main articles. I’m not going to try to prove anything here; this is all going to be math-as-technology, not math-as-theory. If you’re happy with operations such as vector dot products, cross products, and normalization, you can skip this article.

## Scalar

A scalar is what a C# coder would call a float or a double – it’s just a number. Scalars are usually represented as plain lowercase letters such as t or x.

## Vector

A vector is a collection of scalars that define a direction and magnitude in space - for the
purposes of ray-tracing, that will be three components: x, y, and z.
Vectors are usually represented as bold letters (**n** or **p**), or letters with a bar above.

I use vectors both for “directional” concepts, and also for “positional” concepts – a point in space can be represented by a vector from the origin.

A vector **v** is (x, y, z).

For this series of articles, considered from the point of view of you looking at your computer screen, positive x is to the right, positive y is upwards, and positive z is directly into the screen.

## Normal

A normal is a vector pointing perpendicularly away from a surface. For example, assuming your desk is horizontal, the normal to its surface will be directly upwards: (0, 1, 0). The normal from a point on a sphere points directly away from the center, and so forth. Normals are almost always used as normalized vectors (see below).

## Vector Addition

Two vectors **a** and **b** can be added together to give a new vector

(**a**.x + **b**.x, **a**.y + **b**.y, **a**.z + **b**.z).

## Vector-Scalar Multiplication

A Vector **v** may be multiplied by a scalar k giving a new vector
(**v**.x * k, **v**.y * k, **v**.z * k). Multiplying a vector by a scalar changes only the magnitude
of the vector, not the direction. For example, multiplying a vector by 2 doubles the length.
Similarly, dividing a vector by a scalar is the same as multiplying by the inverse of the
scalar – i.e., **v** / f is the same as **v** * (1 / f).

## Vector Magnitude

The magnitude of a vector **v** is simply its length (a scalar):
Sqrt( **v**.x * **v**.x + **v**.y * **v**.y + **v**.z * **v**.z ).
Vector magnitude is often represented by |**v**|.

## Vector Normalization

A vector is said to be normalized if its length (or magnitude) is one. Given a vector **v**,
its normalized form is given by **v** / |**v**|.

## Vector Dot Product

Given two vectors **v** and **w**, the dot product is a scalar, calculated as
**v**.x * **w**.x + **v**.y * **w**.y + **v**.z * **w**.z.
This may seem a pointless computation, until we see that:

v dot w = |
v |
* | w |
* Cos( theta ) |

…where theta is the angle between the two vectors. This can be easily re-arranged to compute theta, if required.

## Vector Cross Product

Given two vectors **v** and **w**, the cross product is a vector:

(-**v**.Z * **w**.Y + **v**.Y * **w**.Z, **v**.Z * **w**.X - **v**.X * **w**.Z, -**v**.Y * **w**.X + **v**.X * **w**.Y )

Again, this looks like nonsense, until we discover that the cross product gives a vector which is
perpendicular to both **v** and **w**.